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  1. Claims of hacking added to Odinga poll challenge

    Peter Mwai

    BBC Reality Check

    Soldier with ballot boxes in Eldoret
    Image caption: Ballot boxes being collected in Eldoret on election day

    Raila Odinga, the losing candidate in Kenya’s presidential election, has included fresh accusations of fraud in his petition to overturn the outcome of the vote.

    His lawyers have filed testimony from anti-corruption campaigner John Githongo, in which he claims to have evidence of widespread, systematic manipulation of the computerised results database.

    In his affidavit, Mr Githongo says a source approached him with evidence that a team of more than 50 people worked to intervene in the tallying process, digitally altering results from counting stations in Mr Ruto’s favour before uploading them onto the election commission website.

    Mr Githongo says one of those involved was Dennis Itumbi, a digital strategist working for the declared winner of the election, William Ruto.

    Reacting to the accusation on Twitter, Mr Itumbi has said: “The Fiction presented as a serious case! I am reading about myself in what sounds like a wild novel.”

    To verify whether systematic tampering of the declaration documents has taken place, the forms lodged with the electoral commission will have to be compared with the original hard copies of the forms completed by returning officers at local counting stations.

    Mr Odinga’s petition was lodged with the Supreme Court on Monday, which has 14 days to make a ruling.

  2. What does Raila Odinga's Kenya vote dispute hinge on?


    Peter Mwai

    BBC Reality Check

    Wafula Chebukati
    Image caption: Mr Odinga has queried the actions of election commission head, Wafula Chebukati

    A key part of Raila Odinga’s legal case about Kenya's election hinges on the role of the chair of the Independent Election and Boundaries Commission (IEBC), Wafula Chebukati.

    Mr Odinga says he should not have announced William Ruto as the winner without the agreement of a majority of the commission, and thus “usurped” their role.

    We know that four of the seven commissioners did not support the announcement of the result.

    But there are different interpretations of Mr Chebukati's powers. Some experts believe under the Kenyan constitution, he alone is empowered to announce the outcome of the presidential poll, acting as the returning officer for that vote.

    They also point to the fact that he is under a legal obligation to do so within seven days of the date of the election.

    However, other legal opinion argues that under the 2011 IEBC act, Mr Chebukati can only announce what the commission has “tallied and verified.”

    This is a point that the Supreme Court will have to resolve.

  3. What happened in the 2017 Kenya election?

    Peter Mwai

    BBC Reality Check

    Supreme Court judges in 2017.

    Raila Odinga, the runner-up in Kenya's presidential election has declared Monday's results "null and void" and a democratic setback.

    Speaking on Tuesday, he also said that in 2017, the Supreme Court of Kenya nullified the presidential election because of what he called "the misconduct" of the national election commission.

    So what happened in that election?

    The court did overturn the August 2017 vote, in which Mr Odinga lost to the current president, Uhuru Kenyatta, after he challenged the result, claiming the voting process had been "tampered with".

    The Supreme Court ruled the election commission had "failed, neglected, or refused to conduct the presidential election in a manner consistent with the dictates of the constitution".

    International observers, including the EU, the Carter Centre and Commonwealth observers, had described the vote as largely free and fair.

    Mr Odinga then boycotted a re-run of the vote in October, saying the election commission had failed to ensure that mistakes he said were made in the August election would not be repeated.

    The Supreme Court then dismissed some legal challenges to the election re-run, confirming Mr Kenyatta as president.

  4. How much would Truss plans save you?

    Reality Check

    Asked about her plans to tackle the cost of living crisis, Liz Truss said: "What I would do immediately is reverse the National Insurance increase, keeping more money in people's pockets, also have a temporary moratorium on the green energy levy to cut fuel bills."

    National Insurance (NI) increased by 1.25p in the pound in April.

    Reversing that would make no difference for anybody earning less than £12,570 a year because they don’t pay NI.

    For someone earning £20,000 a year they would save £93 a year. Someone earning £30,000 would save £218.

    The green levy is an amount the government makes energy companies add to bills to pay for things like schemes to help fund renewable energy and provide grants for insulation. Removing it would knock about £153 off an average annual dual fuel bill, according to the regulator Ofgem.

    Analysts Cornwall Insight have warned that energy bills for a typical household could hit £4,266 a year, in January, up from £1,971 at the moment.

    You can read more about the tax policies of the Tory leadership candidates here

  5. Is Trump right about Hillary Clinton's emails?

    Reality Check

    Hillary Clinton at podium
    Image caption: The emails date back to when Hillary Clinton was US Secretary of State

    In Trump's statement about Monday's FBI search, he reacted angrily and compared his situation to that of his former Democratic rival Hillary Clinton.

    “Hillary Clinton was allowed to delete… 33,000 emails after they were subpoenaed by Congress. Absolutely nothing has happened to hold her accountable," he claimed.

    This claim refers to an investigation into Clinton’s use of a private email server for government business, which is against official protocol. In March 2015, after she’d left office as secretary of state, the company that maintained her email server deleted the archive mailbox, erasing about 32,000 emails, including some from when she was in her official role.

    This happened after Congress had already asked Clinton to hand over any work-related emails. She did hand over thousands of other emails, and said she believed the deleted emails were not work-related.

    The FBI later investigated and found she was “extremely careless” with government material.

    But it said there was no evidence of collusion between her and the company that maintained the server to improperly delete work-related emails, or that Clinton was “allowed” to delete these emails as Trump suggests.

  6. More cyber-attacks against Taiwan

    Reality Check

    There have been some more cyber-attacks reported against official websites in Taiwan.

    The Ministry of National Defence was one target, as well as the Environment Protection Bureau in Kaohsiung, a city in southern Taiwan, according to local media. The Defence Ministry's website went offline temporarily and on the environment bureau's website, the cyber-attackers put up five Chinese national flags.

    The website of Taiwan's presidential office, the Foreign Ministry and the governing party have all been targeted this week.

    Taiwan says the identities of those responsible for the latest attacks remains unknown.

  7. Misinformation spreads online as tensions rise

    Reality Check

    Taoyuan International Airport
    Image caption: Taipei's international airport was not hit by a missile

    Misleading information has been circulating in recent days as tensions have surged.

    Reports emerged incorrectly claiming that the international airport near Taiwan’s capital, Taipei, was hit by a missile on 2 August.

    But Taiwan’s Ministry of National Defence denied this had happened, and pointed out the airport was working normally.

    There've also been claims in some Chinese-language media that Taiwan has cancelled all leave for its military. But as yet this has not happened, although personnel have been asked to remain "on alert."

    There's also been misleading video shared claiming to show Chinese warships in the waters around Taiwan in recent days. But it uses old footage of events held to mark the 73rd anniversary of the Chinese navy in April.

    Similarly, social media users have shared video said to show a recent Chinese military exercise, which was actually a Taiwanese drill from nearly two years ago.

  8. Have US arms sales to Taiwan increased?

    Beijing has repeatedly called on Washington to honour a deal to reduce US arms sales to Taiwan, and says these promises have been broken.

    In 1982, President Ronald Reagan agreed to a gradual reduction in military sales, but added a condition that this would depend on "the commitment of China to a peaceful solution" with Taiwan, which China considers to be a breakaway province.

    No agreement was reached on the timescale for this reduction or the form it would take.

    Over the decades, the value of US arms sales to Taiwan has fluctuated widely.

    The single biggest purchase was made in 1992 by former Taiwan President Lee Teng-hui, following a policy to enhance Taiwan’s independent defence capabilities.

    In 2007 Taiwan significantly increased its defence budget, leading to a significant increase in arms purchased from the US.

    Former US President Barack Obama (in office between 2009-2017) approved three separate arms deals, with a total value of $12bn over eight years.

    His successor Donald Trump signed deals worth at least $14bn during his four years in office.

    President Joe Biden has so far signed deals worth just over $1bn.

    Bar chart showing US arms sales to Taiwan 1990-2020